16. Transom - Is the horizontal reinforcement which strengthens the stern of a boat. This flat termination of the stern is typically above the waterline. Transoms can be used to support a rudder, outboard motor, or as a swimming and access platform.


17. Cleat - See at page 1.

18. Lazarette  -  Also spelled lazaret of a boat is an area near or aft of the cockpit. The word is similar to and probably derived from lazaretto. A lazarette is usually a storage locker used for gear or equipment a sailor or boatswain would use around the decks on a sailing vessel. It is typically found below the weather deck in the stern of the vessel and is accessed through a hatch (if accessed from the main deck) or a doorway (if accessed from below decks). The equipment usually stored in a lazarette would be spare lines, sails, sail repair, line and cable splicing repair equipment, fenders, bosun chair, spare blocks, tools, and other equipment.

19. Companionway - In the architecture of a ship, a companion or companionway is a raised and windowed hatchway in the ship's deck, with a ladder leading below and the hooded entrance-hatch to the main cabins. A companionway may be secured by doors or, commonly in sailboats, hatch boards which fit in grooves in the companionway frame. This allows the lowest board to be left in place during inclement weather to minimize water infiltration. The term may be more broadly used to describe any ladder between decks.

20. Winch - See at page 1.




21. Coach roof - The portion of the deck raised to give increased headroom in the cabin.

22. Front sail (or Genoa) sheet - The sheet attaches to the clew of the sail, and controls it. The front sail has a sheet on each side, only one of which (the leeward one) will be in use at one time.

Types of hull and keel


The keel is basically a flat blade sticking down into the water from a sailboat’s bottom. It has two functions: it prevents the boat from being blown sideways by the wind, and it holds the ballast that keeps the boat right-side up.


Vessel draft (draft in the American spelling, draught in the British) is one of the principal dimensions of any waterborne vessel and is defined in technical terms as the distance between the ship's keel and the waterline of the vessel.


Yacht with long keels are generalliy heavier and narrower than the modern short-keeled boat and are favoured by blue water sailors for their stability and seakindliness in a blow. The narrow beam reduces living space down below and the long keel means that the turning circle is greater than for shorter-keeled boats. It will be difficult to take her astern in a straight line under power, so berthing stern first is not a good option. 


Moderation in all things is often a good philosophy, those who want a good working compromise will choose a hull with a medium-lengh keel and a rudder that is supported over its full lenght with a skeg. This type of yacht will handle tolerably well under power and has a large enough keel area to limit the amount of leeway she makes. Many production cruising boats are of this design and have sufficient beam to satisfy the demand for separate cabins and spacious saloons.  


A boat with bilge keels would be the better bet as this type will sit down on both keels if the seabed is even and not tip its owners out of bed in the middle of the night as it takes to the ground. Many cruising folk like to keep berthing costs down and to enjoy quiet corners away from marinas and draught of a bilge keeler when upright. The downside is that performance upwind can be affected by the water flow around the uppermost keel. 


A lifting keel may be the perfect answer for a berth with restricted water and the one in the photo has a very shallow draught. There usually has to be some compromise for convenience space will be taken up in the cabin by the keel housing, which is often heavily disguised as part of the saloon table. Early models of swing and lifting keels made of a lot of noise down below when the boat was sailing downwind.


Twin-hulled yachts are favoured by those chartering in exotic places because their boat remains flat while sailing and accommodation is spacious. Sailing performance when running downwind is good, but their windward performance is generally poor and the bow turns through the wind slowly. Berthing in a marina can be difficult as many visitors berths are not wide enough for the two hulls, but when lying to a mooring with plenty of swinging room, there should be no problem. Marinas often charge double to berth a cat. 


Short fin keels are sometimes given "wings" to reduce the draught without decreasing the weight of the ballast. Sailing performance is not affected, but if the boat accidentally runs aground, any attempt to re-float her by heeling just digs one of the wings even deeper into the mud. 

Types of Rig


A sloop is designed to have one mast and one foresail and will be described as a "masthead sloop" or as having a "fractional rig". A masthead sloop has the forestay attached to the largest foresail is also hoisted to the top. 


The fractional rig has a taller mast in comparison, but the forestay is attached to a lower point on the mast, which can be between three-quarters and seven-eights of the total mast lenght from the deck. 


A cutter is very similar to the masthead sloop but has a second foresail and the mast is stepped slightly further aft. Blue water cruising yachtsmen often buy cutter-rigged yachts as it gives them greater flexibility to vary the sail pattern either downwind or in a blow.


Known as "Ketch" has the main mast taller than the smaller mizzen mast. To be classified as a ketch the rudder post has to be positioned aft of the mizzen. This tig is considered versatile for the cruising sailor and in strong winds the mizzen and foresail can be used alone without the mainsail to give a balanced boat with reduced sail.